|PCP and cognitive schema
schema is a linchpin of the
cognitive method, since it is a device that explains much of the
cognitive armoury such as distortion, selective attention,
and persistence of incoherent thought. Beck's self-schemas and Kelly's
self-constructs may refer to the same processes of self-construction.
practice schemas are more abstract, serving as explanatory rather than
that the self is not an
entity but a realm of relationships with significant others; the self,
embedded in a network of interpersonal exchanges that locate it in the
this network idea is dissimilar to Beck's (1976,1996) notion of the
self as a
"schema", which he sees not as bipolar but as categorical. According
to Beck, individuals who have a well-developed schema can easily
information about the self. Fixed notions of self arise when the more
frequently used schemata become less flexible and more rigid. All
theories accord schema of the self a great deal of importance. Some
therapists (e.g., Safran, 1990) have challenged the static nature of
further and put forward the view that they act basically as a program
maintaining relatedness in the world. A key point in Safran's model is
schemas are constituted through "loops" which become self-fulfilling
and closed, because of a person's style of relating. Kelly, much
referred to this as the self-fulfilling experience cycle.
But there is a
crucial difference between
Kelly and Safran in that the latter does not consider the profile of
assumptions (schemas) of the observer or therapist, and there is a
his approach to assume that the therapist can interpret the client's
without imposing meaning.
- Beck, A.T. (1976) Cognitive therapy and the
emotional disorders. New York: International Universities Press
- Beck, A.T. (1996) Beyond belief: A theory
of modes, personality and psychopathology. In Salkovskis, P.M. (ed) Frontiers of
cognitive therapy. New York: Guildford Press
- Safran, J.D. (1990)
Towards a refinement of
cognitive therapy in the light of interpersonnal theory. 1.Theory. 11.
Review, 10, 87-121.