|According to O'Hara and
Anderson (1991, p. 20), postmodern consciousness has been raised by
"the cumulative effect of pluralism, democracy, religious freedom,
consumerism, mobility, and increasing access to news and
entertainment". As a consequence of these emerging global awareness, it
becomes increasingly difficult to deny that there are many different
worldviews, and that it is not at all clear why
one's own should be better.
Polkinghorne (1992) defines postmodern thought as a reaction to the
limits of modernist epistemology. Polkinghorne's notion of postmodern
epistemology includes the following four basic themes:
according to Polkinghorne (1992), refers to the notion that we human
beings have no direct access to reality, but only to the product of our
constructions. Thus, human knowledge is inevitably speculative, since
we have no definite epistemic foundation on which to build it. This
notion is a cornerstone
of Kelly’s Psychology
of Personal Constructs.
Fragmentariness refers to the postmodern emphasis on
the local and situated, instead of the general
and totalizing. According to Polkinghorne (1992, p. 149), "knowledge should be concerned with
these local and specific occurrences, not with the search for
context-free general laws". This point is also visible in PCP’s
interest in personal meanings instead of general and disembodied
Polkinghorne (1992) uses the term is closely related to
foudationlessness, and refers to the notion that:
Human knowledge is not a mirrored reflection of reality, neither the
reality of surface chaos nor that of (if they exist) universal
structures. "Human knowledge is a
construction built from the cognitive processes (which mainly operate
out of awareness) and embodied interactions with the world of material
objects, others and the self." (Polkinghorne, 1992, p. 150).
Neopragmatism according to Polkinghorne (1992)
concentrates on local and applied knowledge. Polkinghorne's emphasis on
situated knowledge is common to other proponents of a postmodern
such as Gergen (1992), and Kvale (1992). The
is not whether a given proposition is true (i.e., is it an accurate
representation of reality?) but whether accepting it as if it were true
leads to the anticipated outcome. This point is also visible in PCP’s
notion of anticipation.
|Gergen, K.J. (1992).
Toward a postmodern psychology. In S.
Kvale (Ed.), Psychology and postmodernism (pp. 17-30). London:
Kvale, S. (1992). Postmodern psychology: A contradiction in terms? In
S. Kvale (Ed.), Psychology and postmodernism (pp. 31-57).
O'Hara, M., & Anderson, W.T. (1991, September/October). Welcome to
the postmodern world. Family Therapy Networker, 19-25.
Polkinghorne, D.E. (1992). Postmodern epistemology of practice. In S.
Kvale (Ed.), Psychology and postmodernism (pp. 146-165).